LLM-grounded Diffusion: Enhancing Prompt Understanding of Text-to-Image Diffusion Models with Large Language Models

LLM-grounded Diffusion: Enhancing Prompt Understanding of Text-to-Image Diffusion Models with Large Language Models
Recent advancements in text-to-image diffusion models have yielded impressive results in generating realistic and diverse images. However, these models still struggle with complex prompts, such as those that involve numeracy and spatial reasoning. This work proposes to enhance prompt understanding capabilities in diffusion models. Our method leverages a pretrained large language model (LLM) for grounded generation in a novel two-stage process. In the first stage, the LLM generates a scene layout that comprises captioned bounding boxes from a given prompt describing the desired image. In the second stage, a novel controller guides an off-the-shelf diffusion model for layout-grounded image generation. Both stages utilize existing pretrained models without additional model parameter optimization. Our method significantly outperforms the base diffusion model and several strong baselines in accurately generating images according to prompts that require various capabilities, doubling the generation accuracy across four tasks on average. Furthermore, our method enables instruction-based multi-round scene specification and can handle prompts in languages not supported by the underlying diffusion model. We anticipate that our method will unleash users' creativity by accurately following more complex prompts. Our code, demo, and benchmark are available at:

Summary Notes

Enhancing Text-to-Image Generation: The Power of LLM-grounded Diffusion Models

The realm of AI and machine learning is witnessing a revolution, particularly in text-to-image generation. As AI Engineers, we're always on the lookout for innovations that improve the accuracy and relevance of images generated from text descriptions.
Despite strides in this field, comprehending complex prompts remains a challenge. This is where integrating Large Language Models (LLMs) with diffusion models comes into play, promising to significantly improve prompt understanding and image accuracy.

Understanding the Challenge

The main hurdle is the text-to-image models' struggle with complex prompts. These include challenges like:
  • Interpreting numerical details
  • Understanding spatial relationships
  • Correctly associating attributes with objects Most advanced models still find it difficult to fully grasp the context or specifics of a prompt.

Exploring Existing Solutions

While several models have advanced text-to-image generation, particularly through diffusion methods, their ability to manage complex prompts efficiently is still wanting. Some efforts to integrate LLMs for better visual context have shown potential, but precise control over spatial and attribute aspects remains elusive.

Our Innovation: LLM-grounded Diffusion (LMD)

We propose a novel approach called LLM-grounded Diffusion (LMD), which improves image generation from complex texts through a two-stage process:
  • Stage 1: Layout Generation - An LLM creates a scene layout from the text, outlining objects and their attributes.
  • Stage 2: Image Generation - A diffusion model uses the layout to accurately place and detail objects in the image.
This approach, which builds on existing pretrained models, supports multiple languages and includes an iterative refinement feature for improving accuracy based on user feedback.

Testing and Results

Our tests show that LMD significantly surpasses traditional models in understanding and executing complex prompts.
It effectively handles negations, numerical data, spatial relationships, and attribute association. The iterative refinement capability also underscores its flexibility and practical utility.

Looking Ahead

LLM-grounded Diffusion is a pivotal development in text-to-image generation. It offers a robust solution for accurate complex prompt interpretation and supports multi-lingual inputs without needing extra training.
This technology has vast potential applications, from boosting creative processes to enhancing visual content creation across various sectors.

How to Use LMD in Your Projects

For AI Engineers interested in leveraging this technology, we've made the code, demos, and benchmarks accessible at https://llm-grounded-diffusion.github.io. Discover how LLM-grounded Diffusion can transform your projects.


The fusion of Large Language Models with diffusion models marks a promising path forward for text-to-image generation, especially in handling complex prompts.
As we continue to refine these technologies, the prospects for generating more accurate and detailed images from text are vast. With LLM-grounded Diffusion leading the charge, the future of text-to-image generation is looking incredibly bright, opening new avenues for AI application in visual content creation.

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